While the need to build up crisis resistance was already noted after the financial crisis of 2008, many countries, especially in the developing world, had to set up new support systems very swiftly after the onset of the coronavirus pandemic.
How well prepared were the social insurance systems in developing countries to the crisis? To what extent did some of the new COVID-19 related policies, and the existing social protection programmes, cushion households against the poverty and inequality increases associated with the crisis? How could the tax-benefit arrangements in these countries be further developed towards offering a more comprehensive support for households when shocks occur? And where can one find suitable fiscal space to finance these programmes, especially when public finances have taken a severe hit during the pandemic?